Steven Best and Douglas Kellner identify Rauschenberg and Jasper Johns as part of the transition phase between modernism and Duchamp-influenced postmodernism. Both used images of ordinary objects or objects themselves in their work, retaining the abstraction and pictorial gestures of high modernity.  After World War II, modernity was questioned and criticized. His controversial rejection of tradition backfired when it finally became a full-fledged tradition. Modernism shocks its audience with unpredictable effects to thwart normal expectations. The criticism of modernism was that disharmony was used in modernist music, that there were no intelligible actions in movies or books, and that poetry could not be clearly interpreted. Modernism slowly moved away from a revolutionary movement as its institutionalization increased, eventually leading to the birth of postmodernism. In fact, modernity has flourished primarily in consumer/capitalist societies, although its proponents have often rejected consumerism itself. However, after World War II, especially in the 1960s, high modernism began to merge with consumer culture. In Britain, a youth subculture called “Modernist” (usually abbreviated as Mod) emerged after representative music groups such as The Who and The Kinks. Bob Dylan, Serge Gainsbourg and the Rolling Stones combined popular musical traditions with modernist verse, adopting literary means by James Joyce, Samuel Beckett, James Thurber, T.S.
Eliot, Guillaume Apollinaire, Allen Ginsberg and others. The Beatles evolved in a similar way, creating various modernist musical effects on several albums, while musicians such as Frank Zappa, Syd Barrett and Captain Beefheart proved even more experimental. Modernist devices also appeared in popular cinema and later in music videos. Modernist design also began to enter the mainstream of popular culture as simplified and stylized forms became popular, often associated with dreams of a high-tech space-age future. The 1940s in New York marked the triumph of American Abstract Expressionism, a modernist movement that combined the teachings of Henri Matisse, Pablo Picasso, Surrealism, Joan Miró, Cubism, Fauvism, and early modernism through great American professors such as Hans Hofmann and John D. Graham. American artists have benefited from the presence of Piet Mondrian, Fernand Léger, Max Ernst and the André Breton group, the Pierre Matisse Gallery and Peggy Guggenheim`s L`Art de ce siècle, among others. According to one critic, modernism emerged from the revolt of romanticism against the effects of the Industrial Revolution and bourgeois values: “The fundamental motive of modernity,” Graff argues, “was a critique of the bourgeois social order of the nineteenth century and its worldview… the modernists who carry the torch of romanticism.” [a]   While J. M. W. Turner (1775-1851), one of the greatest landscape painters of the 19th century, was one of the greatest landscape painters of the 19th century.
He was a member of the Romantic movement, as a “pioneer in the study of light, color and atmosphere”, he “anticipated the French Impressionists” and thus modernism “by breaking conventional formulas of representation; Unlike them, he believed that his works should always express historical, mythological, literary or other important narrative themes.  The terms modern art and modern art are generally used to describe the succession of artistic movements that critics and historians have identified since Gustav Courbet`s realism, culminating in abstract art and its developments in the 1960s. Despite continuous technological advances, the idea that history and civilization are inherently progressive and that progress is always good was increasingly attacked in the nineteenth century. It was argued that the values of the artist and those of society were not only different, but that society was opposed to progress and could not move forward in its present form. At the turn of the century, the philosopher Schopenhauer (1788-1860) (The World as Will and Representation, 1819) had challenged earlier optimism, and his ideas had an important influence on later thinkers, including Nietzsche.  Two of the most important thinkers of the mid-nineteenth century were the biologist Charles Darwin (1809-1882), author of On the Origin of Species by Natural Selection (1859), and the political scientist Karl Marx (1818-1883), author of Capital (1867). Darwin`s theory of evolution by natural selection undermined religious certainty and the idea of human uniqueness. In particular, the idea that humans are driven by the same impulses as “inferior animals” has proven difficult to reconcile with the idea of an ennobling spirituality.  Karl Marx argued that there were fundamental contradictions within the capitalist system and that workers were anything but free.  Modernism, however, believed that in the chaos of the sinking world, only art was the reliable reality. Art has thus gained importance as a unifying factor capable of remedying humanity`s failures. Artists and intellectuals who believed in free speech, equality, primitivism and radicalism became the backbone of this movement.
Based on cultural inclinations towards all that is modern, be it thought, practice or character, modernity has been a climate of thought. The feeling of an individual, his opinion, led to a new vision of society, to the appreciation of cultural works and their creators, which was more than a sum of their parts. Read the artwork legends below to learn some important modernist developments Modernist innovations included abstract art, the novel Stream of Consciousness, montage cinema, atonal and twelve-tone music, and divisionist painting. Others focus on modernity as aesthetic introspection. This makes it possible to consider the specific responses to the use of technology during World War I, as well as the anti-technological and nihilistic aspects of the works of various thinkers and artists of the period ranging from Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) to Samuel Beckett (1906-1989).      In the early 1980s, the postmodern movement began to establish itself in art and architecture through various conceptual and intermedia formats. Postmodernism in music and literature began to assert itself earlier. This caused an uproar at the premiere in Paris. At the time, although modernism was still “progressive,” he increasingly saw traditional forms and social arrangements as an obstacle to progress, portraying the artist as a revolutionary who advocated the overthrow rather than enlightenment of society.